Text messaging has been around since the dawn of cellular technology, and sparked its own unique language. But it’s time to put sending regular SMS messages out to pasture.
If you have an iPhone, you’re already on your way. iPhones (as well as iPads and Macs) use iMessage to send messages between Apple devices. It’s a data-based messaging system reliant on 3G, 4G, and Wi-Fi, rather than SMS messaging, which uses an old, outdated but universal 2G cellular network. iMessage has grown in popularity, but has left Android devices and other computers out in the dark.
That’s where other messaging services have filled a gap in the market.
Apps like Signal, WhatsApp, Wire and Wickr are also data-based and work across platforms. Best of all, they’re end-to-end encrypted, which means sent messages are scrambled on one end of the conversation — the device — and unscrambled at the other end on the recipient’s device. This makes it near-impossible for anyone — even the app maker — to see what’s being said.
Many popular apps, like Instagram, Skype, Slack and Snapchat don’t offer end-to-end encryption at all. Facebook Messenger has the option to use “secret” end-to-end encrypted messaging, but isn’t enabled by default.
Here’s what you need to know.
Why hate on SMS messaging?
SMS, or short messaging service, is more than three decades old. It’s generally reliable, but it’s outdated, archaic and expensive. There are also several reasons why SMS messaging is insecure.
SMS messages aren’t encrypted, meaning the contents of each text message are viewable to mobile carriers and governments, and can even be intercepted by organized and semi-skilled hackers. That means even if you’re using SMS to secure your online accounts using two-factor authentication, your codes can be stolen. Just as bad, SMS messages leak metadata, which is information about the message but not the contents of the message itself, such as the phone number of the sender and the recipient, which can identify the people involved in the conversation.
SMS messages can also be spoofed, meaning you can never be completely sure that a SMS message came from a particular person.
And a recent ruling by the Federal Communications Commission now gives cell carriers greater powers to block SMS messages. The FCC said it will cut down on SMS spam, but many worry that it could be used to stifle free speech.
In all of these cases, the answer is an encrypted messaging app.
What are the best encrypted messaging apps?
The simple answer is Signal, an open source, end-to-end encrypted messaging app seen as the gold standard of secure consumer messaging services.
Signal supports and encrypts all of your messages, calls and video chats with other Signal users. Some of the world’s smartest security professionals and cryptography experts have looked at and verified its code, and trust its security. The app uses your cell phone number as its point of contact — which some have criticized, but it’s easy to set the app up with a dedicated phone number without losing your own cell number. Other than your phone number, the app is built from the ground up to collect as little metadata as possible.
A recent government demand for Signal’s data showed that the app maker has almost nothing to turn over. Not only are your messages encrypted, each person in the conversation can set messages to expire — so that even if a device is compromised, the messages can be set to already disappear. You can also add a separate lock screen on the app for additional security. And the app keeps getting stronger and stronger. Recently, Signal rolled out a new feature that masks the phone number of a message sender, making it better for sender anonymity.
But actually, there is a far more nuanced answer than “just Signal.”